Work in this topic area builds on existing knowledge and global projections of drivers and pressures affecting aquatic ecosystems, as well as case study specific knowledge to refine the AQUACROSS Assessment Framework. First, using the outcomes of the Assessment Framework, this topic delivers guidance for the development of indicators and application of methods to assess drivers and pressures affecting aquatic ecosystems. Next, using the guidance on indicators and methods identified in the first step, the Assessment Framework is tested in regard to drivers and pressures in the case studies. The suitability of the proposed indicators, models and tools for the assessment in the case studies is investigated and proposals to improve the Assessment Framework are made. The assessment in case studies are also used to provide policy recommendations on the practical application of the Assessment Framework on drivers and pressures.